EAP-PEAP and EAP-TTLS Authentication with a RADIUS Server (2023)

Application Note


This application note explains how to configure the Interlink RAD-Series RADIUS Server to do TLS-protected authentication using EAP-PEAP or the EAP-TTLS authentication method.

This application note only covers the configuration records in the server configuration files. These are text files and can be edited with a text editor. Use of the RAD-Series RADIUS Server Manager for managing server configurations is covered in the RADIUS Server Administrator’s Guide.

Overview of TLS-Protected EAP Methods

The EAP-TLS authentication method and the TLS protected EAP methods based on it – EAP-TTLS and EAP-PEAP – all make use of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol to provide integrity and confidentiality protection.

The underlying TLS protocol is based on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol commonly used by web browsers to secure web transactions. Using public key cryptography, communicating parties may authenticate themselves to each other using public key certificates. In web applications, only the server typically has a certificate and authenticates itself to the client so that the user can have confidence that his communication has not been redirected or intercepted by an imposter. In this case, TLS provides unidirectional authentication. But if both parties have certificates, TLS can provide mutual authentication. Following the authentication phase, the two parties use a key agreement protocol such as Diffie-Hellman to derive a session key which is used to authenticate and encrypt messages exchanged during the TLS session.


EAP-TLS uses the TLS public key certificate authentication mechanism within EAP to provide mutual authentication of client to server and server to client. With EAP-TLS, both the client and the server must be assigned a digital certificate signed by a Certificate Authority (CA) that they both trust.
Features of EAP-TLS include:

  • Mutual authentication (server to client as well as client to server)
  • Key exchange (to establish dynamic WEP or TKIP keys)
  • Fragmentation and reassembly (of very long EAP messages, if needed)
  • Fast reconnect (via TLS session resumption) – not currently supported by Interlink


Protected EAP (PEAP) adds a TLS layer on top of EAP in the same way as EAP-TLS, but it then uses the resulting TLS session as a carrier to protect other, legacy EAP methods.

EAP-PEAP has an assigned EAP type. Ordinarily EAP-PEAP uses TLS only to authenticate the server to the client but not the client to the server. This way, only the server is required to have a public key certificate; the client need not have one. (Although EAP-PEAP can theoretically allow the client to use a certificate to authenticate to the server, the Interlink RADIUS server implementation does not allow this. Use EAP-TLS instead.)

After the client is satisfied regarding the authenticity of the server’s identity, the client and server exchange a sequence of EAP messages encapsulated within TLS messages. The TLS messages are authenticated and encrypted using TLS session keys negotiated by the client and the server.

The protected EAP messages (those encapsulated within TLS messages) may be of any EAP type desired (except PEAP and TTLS ).

EAP-PEAP provides the following services to the EAP methods it protects:

  • Message authentication (Imposters may neither falsify nor insert EAP messages.)
  • Message encryption, (Imposters may neither read nor decipher the protected EAP messages.)
  • Authentication of server to client (so that the protected method only needs to authenticate client to server)
  • Key exchange (to establish dynamic WEP or TKIP keys)
  • Fragmentation and reassembly (of very long EAP messages, if needed)
  • Fast reconnect (via TLS session resumption) – not currently supported by Interlink

EAP-PEAP is especially useful as a mechanism to augment the security of legacy EAP methods that lack one or more of the above features. There are many EAP methods that provide adequate security for PPP authentication but completely fail to provide adequate security in a wireless LAN environment. EAP-PEAP can therefore be used to augment the security of these legacy methods so that they may adequately be used for 802.1x authentication.


The Tunneled TLS EAP method (EAP-TTLS) is very similar to EAP-PEAP in the way that it works and the features that it provides. The difference is that instead of encapsulating EAP messages within TLS, the TLS payload of EAP-TTLS messages consists of a sequence of attributes. By including a RADIUS EAP-Message attribute in the payload, EAP-TTLS can be made to provide the same functionality as EAP-PEAP. If, however, a RADIUS Password or CHAP-Password attribute is encapsulated, EAP-TTLS can protect the legacy authentication mechanisms of RADIUS.

The advantage of this becomes apparent if the EAP-TTLS server is used as a proxy to mediate between an access point and a legacy home RADIUS server. When the EAP-TTLS server forwards RADIUS messages to the home RADIUS server, it encapsulates the attributes protected by EAP-TTLS and inserts them directly into the forwarded message. The EAP-TTLS messages are not forwarded to the home RADIUS server. Thus the legacy authentication mechanisms supported by existing RADIUS severs in the infrastructure can be protected for transmission over wireless LANs.

EAP-PEAP and EAP-TTLS Authentication with a RADIUS Server (1)

(Video) EAP-TLS and PEAP: what they are, part 1

Figure 1 — How a TTLS server interacts with a legacy RADIUS server

Anonymous Identities

Both EAP-PEAP and EAP-TTLS support identity hiding. In a WiFi environment, the access point (AP) typically generates an EAP-Identity request as part of the association process. To preserve anonymity, the EAP client on the user’s system may respond with only enough information to allow the first hop RADIUS server to process the request, as shown in the following examples.

  • EAP-Identity = anonymous

In this example, all users will share the pseudo-user-name “anonymous”. The first hop RADIUS server is an EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS server which drives the server end of the PEAP or TTLS protocol. The inner (protected) authentication type will then be either handled locally or proxied to a remote (home) RADIUS server.

  • EAP-Identity = anonymous@realm_x

In this example, users belonging to different realms hide their own identity but indicate which realm they belong to so that the first hop RADIUS server may proxy the EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS requests to RADIUS servers in their home realms which will act as the PEAP or TTLS server. The first hop server acts purely as a RADIUS relay node.

Alternatively, the first hop server may act as the EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS server and either process the protected authentication method or proxy it to another server. This option may be used to configure different policies for different realms.

In EAP-PEAP, once the PEAP server and the PEAP client establish the TLS tunnel, the PEAP server generates an EAP-Identity request and transmits it down the TLS tunnel. The client responds to this second EAP-Identity request by sending an EAP-Identity response containing the user’s true identity down the encrypted tunnel. This prevents anyone eavesdropping on the 802.11 traffic from discovering the user’s true identity.

EAP-TTLS works slightly differently. With EAP-TTLS, the client typically authenticates via PAP or CHAP protected by the TLS tunnel. In this case, the client will include a User-Name attribute and either a Password or CHAP-Password attribute in the first TLS message sent after the tunnel is established.

With either protocol, the PEAP/TTLS server learns the user’s true identity once the TLS tunnel has been established. The true identity may be either in the form user@realm or simply user. If the PEAP/TTLS server is also authenticating the user, it now knows the user’s identity and proceeds with the authentication method being protected by the TLS tunnel. Alternatively, the PEAP/TTLS server may forward a new RADIUS request to the user’s home RADIUS server. This new RADIUS request has the PEAP or TTLS protocol stripped out. If the protected authentication method is EAP, the inner EAP messages are transmitted to the home RADIUS server without the EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS wrapper. The User-Name attribute of the outgoing RADIUS message contains the user’s true identity – not the anonymous identity from the User-Name attribute of the incoming RADIUS request. If the protected authentication method is PAP or CHAP (supported only by TTLS), the User-Name and other authentication attributes recovered from the TLS payload are placed in the outgoing RADIUS message in place of the anonymous User-Name and TTLS EAP-Message attributes included in the incoming RADIUS request.

Configuring the RAD-Series RADIUS Server for EAP-PEAP and EAP-TTLS

This application note covers configuration considerations specific to the EAP-PEAP and EAP-TTLS methods. Instructions for creating and storing the TLS certificates can be found in the RADIUS Server Administrator’s Guide.

The first question that must be answered is whether you require identity hiding. If so, skip the next section and go to the section titled “Configuring EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS for Realms Requiring Identity Protection”. If not, then proceed with the following section.

Configuring EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS for Realms not Requiring Identity Protection

For users that do not require identity hiding, configure EAP.authfile entries and authfile entries as described below.

Configuring the EAP.authfile Entries

We will configure the EAP.authfile entries first. You will add a record to this file for each realm for which you will be providing EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS services. The EAP.authfile records have the following format.

realm EAP “comment” { EAP-Type PEAP { protected-type } } or
realm EAP “comment” { EAP-TYPE TTLS { protected-type } }


  • realm is replaced by the name of the realm being configured. For those users who do not specify a realm (whose user names are of the form user rather than user@realm, realm\user or realm/user), enter the keyword NULL in place of realm.
  • EAP specifies EAP authentication is configured for the realm.
  • “comment” specifies a comment that may be useful to an administrator; if no comment is desired, just specify “”.
  • EAP-Type PEAP or EAP-Type TTLS specifies that this server will act as the PEAP or TTLS server for this realm.
  • protected-type is replaced by the PEAP or TTLS protected authentication type which will be used to authenticate users from this realm. The protected-type field has a syntax all its own which can be somewhat complex. How to specify the protected-type is explained below.

How to Enter the Protected-type Field

For either PEAP or TTLS, the protected-type field may take on the following form:

  • a list of EAP-Types

For realms using TTLS, an additional form is available:

  • null (no specified protected-type)

Each of these will be explained in detail below.

(Video) Securing RADIUS with EAP-TLS [Windows Server 2019]

Protected-type is a List of EAP-Types

If the users for the realm being configured will authenticate with an EAP method protected by PEAP or TTLS, the protected-type field should be a list of EAP-Types. An EAP-Type specification has the following format:

EAP-Type type


  • The keyword EAP-Type indicates that the protected authentication method is an EAP method.
  • The parameter type is replaced by the name of any EAP method supported by Interlink Networks. A list of these types can be found in the configuration file named dictionary. At the time of this writing, the supported EAP-types are:
    • MD5_Challenge
    • TLS
    • CiscoLEAP
    • TTLS
    • PEAP
    • MS_EAP

An example of an EAP-Type specification is:

EAP-Type MD5_Challenge

The EAP-Type specification can be repeated multiple times, with a different EAP method each time. The EAP-Type specifications are separated by white space.

An example of a list of EAP-Types is:

EAP-Type CiscoLEAP EAP-Type MD5_Challenge

In this example, the server will first try to authenticate users from this realm with the CiscoLEAP EAP method. If the user is unable to authenticate with CiscoLEAP, the server will next try the MD5_Challenge EAP method.

When this list is used in an EAP.authfile record, it looks like this:

example.net EAP “” {EAP-Type TTLS { EAP-Type CiscoLEAP EAP-Type MD5_Challenge} }



Protected-type is Null

EAP-TTLS is frequently used to augment the security of legacy authentication systems. Many organizations that use EAP-TTLS wish to augment the security of their legacy PAP or CHAP authentication systems for use over wireless LANs. When EAP-TTLS is used to protect PAP or CHAP, the TTLS client takes the initiative by encoding the user credentials into RADIUS attributes and presenting them to the TTLS server encapsulated in TLS protected EAP messages. Since the client takes the initiative, no special configuration is needed in the TTLS server.

To configure a realm to do PAP, CHAP, or MS-CHAP authentication protected by TTLS, the protected-type field is null as shown in the following example:

example.net EAP “” { EAP-Type TTLS { } }

or simply:

example.net EAP “” { EAP-Type TTLS }

(Video) EAP Authentication types - LEAP, EAP-FAST, PEAP, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS

Note for Compatibility with the Interlink RAD-Series RADIUS Server Manager

It is not recommended that you mix hand configuration using a text editor with configuration using the RADIUS Server Manager. However, if you do use both, the following restriction applies.

Although the RAD-Series RADIUS Server is quite flexible regarding the placement of line breaks, the RADIUS Server Manager does not offer the same level of flexibility. To maintain compatibility with the RADIUS Server Manager, for each of the constructs above that use braces ( { and } ), each left or right brace should be put on a line by itself or with only spaces and tabs. Thus the syntax:

realm EAP “comment” { EAP-Type PEAP { protected-type } }

should be entered as:

realm EAP “comment”

An example using this expanded syntax is:

example.net EAP “”
EAP-Type CiscoLEAP
EAP-Type MD5_Challenge

Configuring the authfile Entries

We have now finished configuring how the users of each realm should be authenticated. The next step is to configure where the user credentials are stored. We shall refer to the database containing the user credentials as the data repository. To configure the data repository for each realm, we turn our attention to the file named authfile.

Each realm for which the user authentication will be performed on this RADIUS server should be configured by adding a record to the file named authfile as follows:

realm repository-type repository


  • realm is replaced by the name of the realm being configured. For those users who do not specify a realm (whose user names are of the form user rather than user@realm), enter the keyword NULL in place of realm.
  • repository-type is replaced with the type of repository that contains the user credentials for this realm.
  • repository is a specification of the data repository from which the user credentials for this realm will be read.

The repository types you may configure are:

  • iaaaFile
  • Oracle
  • SAMDatabase

Detailed instructions for configuring repository types may be found in other documents. Only a simple example will be offered here:

Example authfile entry:

example.net iaaaFILE example.net

In this example, user credentials for the realm example.net are found in the flat file named example.net.users.

Configuring EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS for Realms Requiring Identity Protection

This section describes how to configure realms that require identity protection.

Note: Not all PEAP clients (the PEAP software that runs on the user’s device) support anonymous identities. Before configuring anonymous profiles for PEAP realms, check whether the PEAP clients used in those realms support anonymous identities.

(Video) Securing RADIUS with EAP-TLS (Wired WPA2- Enterprise) [Windows Server 2019]

Configuring an Anonymous Profile

The first step is to create configuration profiles for the anonymous identities. The anonymous profiles are configured on the RADIUS server that will act as the EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS server.

You may configure one or more anonymous profiles. Their User-Names may include realms (e.g., anonymous@realm1, anonymous@realm2) or not (e.g.,anonymous1, anonymous2).

We recommend that you include the anonymous profile(s) in the users file. That way it will be cached in main memory for efficient reuse. This also allows a User-Name such as anonymous@realm1 to be processed by this server, but the protected user identities in realm1 to be proxied to another server via the authfile if that is desired.

Add the anonymous profile(s) to the configuration file named “users” according to the following syntax:

User-Name@Realm Authentication-Type = EAP, EAP-TYPE = PEAP, check-items



User-Name@Realm Authentication-Type = EAP, EAP-TYPE = TTLS, check-items



  • User-Name@Realm is replaced by the identifier for the anonymous profile. The @Realm portion is optional and may be omitted for users that do not specify a realm.
  • Authentication-Type = EAP specifies that users that originally identify themselves as anonymous should be authenticated using EAP.
  • EAP-TYPE = PEAP or EAP-TYPE = TTLS further specifies that EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS, respectively, should be used to authenticate users claiming this anonymous identity.
  • check-items may be optionally replaced with a list of check and deny items that will apply to all users who begin authentication by claiming this anonymous identity. These check items will be checked after the user’s true identity is authenticated and after any policy, check/deny, or reply items associated with the user’s true profile have been applied. The check-items must be included on the same line as the identifier.
  • reply-items may be optionally replaced with a list of attributes which will be added to the user’s Access Request and (assuming successful authentication) Access Accept messages. Unlike the check/deny items, the reply items are added to the user attribute list before user authentication. They may be overridden by subsequent reply items from the user’s true profile. The reply-items must be placed on lines following the identifier and beginning with one or more tabs or spaces.

Configuring the User Authentication to be Done on Another RADIUS Server

You have two options open to you as to where the actual user authentication will take place.

One option is to perform the actual user authentication directly on the PEAP/TTLS server. To implement this option, skip this section and proceed directly to the section titled “Configuring the User Profiles”.

The other option is for the PEAP/TTLS server to forward RADIUS messages containing the protected authentication mechanism to another RADIUS server for authentication and authorization. The forwarded requests will not contain any EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS messages. Rather, they will contain the EAP messages that were protected (encapsulated) by the EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS messages or, in the case of TTLS, the PAP-Password or CHAP-Password and CHAP-Challenge attributes that were protected (encapsulated) by the EAP-TTLS messages. This section describes how to configure this option.

All requests for which the User-Name cannot be found in the users file will be authenticated as specified in the configuration file named “authfile”. This will cause PEAP and TTLS requests to be authenticated as specified in the authfile once the true User-Name is discovered.

Each realm for which the user authentication will be done on another RADIUS server should be configured by adding a record to the file named authfile as follows:

realm RADIUS server


  • realm is replaced by the name of the realm being configured. For those users who do not specify a realm (whose user names are of the form user rather than user@realm), enter the keyword NULL in place of realm.
  • RADIUS specifies that all requests for this realm other than anonymous requests should be proxied via RADIUS to the specified server.
  • server is replaced by the name of the RADIUS server to which requests for this realm should be proxied.

Configuring the User Profiles

The profiles for the individual users who will authenticate using a TLS-protected authentication method (one protected by EAP-PEAP or EAP-TTLS) are configured in exactly the same way they would be configured if PEAP or TTLS protection were not being used.

(Video) Wireless Authentication Protocols - SY0-601 CompTIA Security+ : 3.4

If EAP-TTLS is the protecting protocol, then individual users may be authenticated via PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, or EAP. If PEAP is the protecting protocol, then individual users must be authenticated by some EAP method other than PEAP, TTLS or SPEKE.


How the EAP authentication process works with the RADIUS server? ›

The RADIUS server receives the Access-Request from the NAS and decodes the EAP data. It performs authentication and returns an EAP Success or Fail message, which is encapsulated in a RADIUS packet. In theory, the system performing the EAP authentication is an EAP Server.

What is the difference between EAP-TTLS and EAP PEAP? ›

The difference between PEAP vs EAP-TLS is: PEAP is a SSL wrapper around EAP carrying EAP. TTLS is a SSL wrapper around diameter TLVs (Type Length Values) carrying RADIUS authentication attributes.

Is EAP-TTLS more secure than EAP-TLS? ›

EAP-TTLS – and why Globalreach uses it

EAP-TTLS offers an extensible security method, with certificate-based mutual authentication. However, unlike EAP-TLS, only the server-side requires a certificate and can enable Wi-Fi networks to securely use and connect to alternative identity databases.

Does EAP-TLS use RADIUS? ›

EAP-TLS authentication involves 3 parties, the supplicant (user's device), the authenticator (switch or controller), and the authentication server (RADIUS server).

How do you authenticate to a RADIUS server? ›

The user tries to authenticate, either through a browser-based HTTPS connection to the device over port 4100, or through a connection using Mobile VPN with IPSec. The device reads the user name and password. The device creates a message called an Access-Request message and sends it to the RADIUS server.

What does EAP TLS use to authenticate server and client both ways? ›

EAP-TLS uses the TLS public key certificate authentication mechanism within EAP to provide mutual authentication of client to server and server to client.

Which WIFI authentication method should I use? ›

When choosing from among WEP, WPA, WPA2 and WPA3 wireless security protocols, experts agree WPA3 is best for Wi-Fi security. As the most up-to-date wireless encryption protocol, WPA3 is the most secure choice.

What are the 3 categories of authentication technologies? ›

Authentication factors can be classified into three groups: something you know: a password or personal identification number (PIN); something you have: a token, such as bank card; something you are: biometrics, such as fingerprints and voice recognition.

How is a client authenticated with PEAP? ›

PEAP is an 802.1X authentication method that uses server-side public key certificate to establish a secure tunnel in which the client authenticates with server. The PEAP authentication creates an encrypted SSL/TLS tunnel between client and authentication server.

Which is the most secure method to authenticate a user? ›

Biometric authentication relies on the unique biological traits of a user in order to verify their identity. This makes biometrics one of the most secure authentication methods as of today.

What is the weakest authentication method? ›

Explanation: Passwords are considered to be the weakest form of the authentication mechanism because these password strings can...

What is the main advantage of EAP fast over EAP-TLS and PEAP? ›

Unlike EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS requires only server-side certificates. EAP-FAST (Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling) was developed by Cisco*. Instead of using a certificate to achieve mutual authentication.

How to enable EAP TLS in RADIUS server? ›

Freeradius: Configure freeradius to work with EAP-TLS authentication
  1. Change default_eap_type to “tls”
  2. Comment out all the authentication methods sections except for tls.
  3. Comment out “private_key_password” with #
  4. Change private_key_file to ${certdir}/radius.key.
  5. Change certificate_file to ${certdir}/radius.crt.
Oct 5, 2020

Is authenticating through a RADIUS server a good option? ›

Added security benefits: RADIUS allows for unique credentials for each user, which lessens the threat of hackers infiltrating a network (e.g. WiFi) since there is no unified password shared among a number of people.

Which two ports are used for RADIUS for authentication messages? ›

The RADIUS protocol uses UDP packets. There are two UDP ports used as the destination port for RADIUS authentication packets (ports 1645 and 1812). Note that port 1812 is in more common use than port 1645 for authentication packets.

What is the default authentication port used with RADIUS servers? ›

The port values of 1812 for authentication and 1813 for accounting are RADIUS standard ports defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFCs 2865 and 2866. However, by default, many access servers use ports 1645 for authentication requests and 1646 for accounting requests.

What is RADIUS server for WiFi? ›

At its most basic, RADIUS is an acronym for Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. The “Dial In” part of the name shows RADIUS's age: it's been around since 1991. Today, however, RADIUS is widely used to authenticate and authorize users to remote WiFi networks, VPNs, network infrastructure gear, and more.

How do I fix the RADIUS server is not responding? ›

The RADIUS Server troubleshooting can be done by navigating to Manage | System Setup | Users | Settings | Configure Radius and from the Test tab. As can be seen, it offers one to test. basic connectivity with the RADIUS server (e.g, UDP 1812). authenticate a user by LDAP username and password.

What are the 3 main security purposes of TLS? ›

There are three main components to what the TLS protocol accomplishes: Encryption, Authentication, and Integrity.

What is EAP TTLS authentication? ›

EAP-TTLS/PAP is a simple WPA2-Enterprise Wi-Fi authentication method that has been a system standard for many years. When a user wants to connect to the network, the device initiates communication with the network and confirms that it is the correct network by identifying the server certificate.

What are those 4 commonly authentication methods *? ›

The most common authentication methods are Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Authentication Token, Symmetric-Key Authentication, and Biometric Authentication.

How do I manually authenticate my Wi-Fi? ›

Right-click the Wi-Fi signal and select Open Network and Sharing Center. Select Set up a new connection or network. Select Manually connect to a wireless network and click Next.

What is the best way to authenticate users? ›

The most common authentication method that goes 'beyond passwords' is to implement multi-factor authentication (MFA), which is also known as 2-step verification (2SV) or two-factor authentication (2FA).

What is the best way to authenticate API? ›

OAuth (specifically, OAuth 2.0) is considered a gold standard when it comes to REST API authentication, especially in enterprise scenarios involving sophisticated web and mobile applications. OAuth 2.0 can support dynamic collections of users, permission levels, scope parameters and data types.

What are the five basic attacks on authentication systems? ›

The 5 basic authentication attacks are, Clone or borrow the credentials or token, Sniff the credential, Trial and error, Denial of service (DoS), and Retrieve from a backup.

What are the three common identification and authentication methods? ›

Common types of biometrics include the following: Fingerprint scanning verifies authentication based on a user's fingerprints. Facial recognition uses the person's facial characteristics for verification. Iris recognition scans the user's eye with infrared to compare patterns against a saved profile.

Does EAP TTLS need a certificate? ›

EAP-Tunneled Transport Layer Security (EAP-TTLS) is designed to provide authentication that is similar to EAP-TLS, but each user does not require a certificate be issued. The certificates are issued only to authentication servers.

How do I authenticate a user login? ›

In authentication, the user or computer has to prove its identity to the server or client. Usually, authentication by a server entails the use of a user name and password. Other ways to authenticate can be through cards, retina scans, voice recognition, and fingerprints.

Does EAP TLS require username password? ›

RE: EAP TLS Radius

Just like any Windows computer, however the user MUST have a valid username and password to get into the computer to do anything with it. The certificate is only for wireless connectivity.

Which two-factor authentication is best? ›

Let's check out the six best 2FA apps for securing your online accounts.
  1. Google Authenticator. 4 Images. ...
  2. Microsoft Authenticator. 6 Images. ...
  3. LastPass Authenticator. 4 Images. ...
  4. Twilio Authy Authenticator. Authy. ...
  5. iOS 15, iPadOS 15, and macOS Monterey. 4 Images. ...
  6. Step Two is another Apple-centric 2FA app.
Sep 24, 2022

Which two-factor authentication method is the safest? ›

U2F/WebAuthn Security Key

Experts believe that U2F/WebAuthn Security Keys are the most secure method of authentication. Security keys that support biometrics combine the Possession Factor (what you have) with the Inherence Factor (who you are) to create a very secure method of verifying user identities.

Which authentication factor is strongest? ›

Biometric and possession-based authentication factors may be the strongest means of securing a network or application against unauthorized access. Combining these methods into a multi-factor authentication process decreases the likelihood that a hacker could gain unauthorized access to the secured network.

Can hackers bypass authenticator? ›

Another social engineering technique that is becoming popular is known as “consent phishing”. This is where hackers present what looks like a legitimate OAuth login page to the user. The hacker will request the level of access they need, and if access is granted, they can bypass MFA verification.

What are the two commonly used authentication methods? ›

There are three basic types of authentication. The first is knowledge-based — something like a password or PIN code that only the identified user would know. The second is property-based, meaning the user possesses an access card, key, key fob or authorized device unique to them. The third is biologically based.

Which authentication is least secure? ›

The least secure protocol of all is known as the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and simply asks a user to enter a password that matches the one saved in the database.

What is the difference between EAP-PEAP and EAP-TLS? ›

PEAP vs EAP-TLS Summary

Ease of Use: For the end-user, it doesn't make a difference as in both cases, the process is 100% transparent. In terms of deployment, PEAP is a bit easier as you do not have to think about an internal PKI. Security: EAP-TLS is the more secure of the two as it does not rely on passwords.

What is the difference between EAP-TLS and EAP-PEAP? ›

Eap-tls is based on client certificate authentication while peap-eap-tls is based on server side certificate authentication. With peap-eap-tls, the 1st phase will be the encrypted tunnel with server side authentication and then all user sensitive information are encrypted.

What is the difference between wireless PEAP and EAP-TLS? ›

PEAP-MSCHAPv2: Which Authentication Protocol is Superior? PEAP-MSCHAPv2 leaves your organization vulnerable to cyber attacks. EAP-TLS is a superior authentication protocol that uses digital certificates as opposed to credentials.

How to install EAP-TLS certificates for WiFi? ›

EAP-TLS requires client and server certificates.
  1. Copy both certificate files on to device storage.
  2. Go to Settings.
  3. Under Security, install certificates from storage. Enter the password to install both.
  4. You can check if certificates installed by checking the Trusted Certificates.
Nov 5, 2019

Does EAP-TLS require RADIUS? ›

What is Required for EAP-TLS Authentication? The minimum required infrastructure for EAP-TLS authentication is: AAA/RADIUS.

Which authentication method is more secure but requires the services of a RADIUS server? ›

We alluded to it earlier, but the best configuration of a RADIUS client is to equip to to authenticate via the EAP-TLS protocol. That enables certificate-based authentication (CBA), which is the recommended security best practice from authorities such as CISA.

Do people still use RADIUS? ›

RADIUS is commonly used by ISPs

RADIUS is commonly used by Internet service providers (ISPs) to authenticate and authorize users who are trying to access the internet. RADIUS is also used by corporate networks to authenticate and authorize users who are trying to access the network.

What is the best authentication server? ›

Top 7 Authentication Providers for Building Apps With JWT (2022)
  • Ease of Integration. ...
  • Auth0. ...
  • Firebase Authentication. ...
  • Clerk. ...
  • Keycloak. ...
  • Cognito. ...
  • SuperTokens. SuperTokens is a relatively new service. ...
  • Nhost Authentication. Nhost Authentication is an open source authentication service for Hasura.
Jun 14, 2022

How do you authenticate to RADIUS? ›

The user tries to authenticate, either through a browser-based HTTPS connection to the device over port 4100, or through a connection using Mobile VPN with IPSec. The device reads the user name and password. The device creates a message called an Access-Request message and sends it to the RADIUS server.

How do I set RADIUS authentication? ›

Configuring RADIUS authentication
  1. On the Admin tab, click Authentication.
  2. Click Authentication Module Settings.
  3. From the Authentication Module list, select RADIUS Authentication.
  4. Configure the parameters: In the RADIUS Server field, type the host name or IP address of the RADIUS server. ...
  5. Click Save Authentication Module.

How do I setup a RADIUS authentication server? ›

RADIUS Accounting
  1. Navigate to Wireless > Configure > Access control and select the desired SSID from the dropdown menu.
  2. Under RADIUS accounting, select RADIUS accounting is enabled.
  3. Under RADIUS accounting servers, click Add a server. ...
  4. Enter the details for: ...
  5. Click Save changes.
Nov 18, 2022

How does EAP authentication work? ›

The EAP authentication exchange proceeds as follows: 1) The authenticator (the server) sends a Request to authenticate the peer (the client). 2) The peer sends a Response packet in reply to a valid Request. 3) The authenticator sends an additional Request packet, and the peer replies with a Response.

Which EAP method should the RADIUS server and clients support? ›

1) EAP-PEAPv0/EAP-MSCHAPv2: Also known as PEAP-MSCHAPv2, this is the most widely deployed EAP method of all the 802.1X/EAP methods available for WLANs. This is mainly because: --- Most wireless clients and RADIUS Servers support it.

What is EAP server vs RADIUS server? ›

RADIUS is a authentication protocol which uses shared secret and other methods to make a safe authentication, and EAP is more of a generic protocol. I know that EAP doesn't do anything on its own (that it's just a framework), and and a more specific type (like EAP-TLS) is used to perform the authentication.

How are transactions between a client and a RADIUS server authenticated? ›

The RADIUS Client tries to authenticate to the RADIUS Server using user credentials (username and password). The Client sends an Access-Request message to the RADIUS Server. The message comprises a shared secret. Passwords are always encrypted in the Access-Request message.

What is EAP-TLS vs PEAP TLS? ›

Eap-tls is based on client certificate authentication while peap-eap-tls is based on server side certificate authentication. With peap-eap-tls, the 1st phase will be the encrypted tunnel with server side authentication and then all user sensitive information are encrypted.

How do I connect to PEAP Wi-Fi? ›

Pixel 6 and 7 with Android 13

On your Android device, swipe down twice to find the settings option. Tap Settings, then Network & internet, then Internet. Tap eduroam. Tap EAP method, then select PEAP.

What is a RADIUS server used for? ›

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a client-server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.


1. Enable EAP-TLS for Freeradius
(Cobra Network Testing)
2. Configure PEAP EAP-TLS 802.1x
3. 802.1x EAP-TLS : Install & Setup FreeRADIUS on CentOS 7
4. EAP Methods
(Mushraf Mustafa)
5. EAP and EAP TLS | How does EAP work authentication | Let's know Protecting and Component By Rajneesh
(Rajneesh Gupta)
6. EAP-TLS configuration on a wireless client


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